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skittleslol

The Wonderful World of Long Lance (and the two torpedo cruisers)

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First and foremost, a disclaimer: I'm no naval historian. Just a student with access to the Googlespace. Heck, my college degree don't even touch the topic of torpedoes (because that would be weird), but I just have a strange love for the wonderful invention that is torpedoes, brought by the resurgence of my love for ships (thanks to KanColle, WoWS, and NF).

 

So without further ado, TORPEDOES!

 

ds4w.jpg

Type 93 Model 22 torpedo being fired

 

First off, a small history behind torpedoes. The first torpedoes were more akin to floating naval mines when first introduced. Another early type of torpedo was the spar torpedo, which little more than explody bits on a stick. The method of attack: stick the explody bit on the bottom of a ship using a (man powered) submarine or smaller boat, light the fuse, and hope you don't get blown up along with victim ship. As expected, this didn't go as well as intended, as evidenced by the H. L. Hunley's attack.

 

The modern torpedo came into being by the invention of the Whitehead torpedo by Robert Whitehead. This had the form of a torpedo we all know and love (or love to hate) now, and was when the term torpedo came to describe self-propelled projectiles that traveled underwater or on water. By World War 1, torpedoes were already being used widely by both sides, most prevalently by the German U-Boats, sinking shipping in the Channel and disrupting supply lines. So I guess we could say the Whitehead torpedo was the granddaddy of modern torpedoes. Whether it had a white head or not, I am not sure.

 

Even before World War 1, however, the Japanese were already catching on to this newfangled thing that was the torpedo. During the Battle of Tsushima in 1905, Japanese used torpedo firing ships to sink the flagship of the Russian fleet. During the interwar years between World War I and World War II, the Imperial Japanese Navy was at a disadvantage with the 5:5:3 capital ship ratio of the Washington Naval Treaty, especially in a naval battle with the United States in the Pacific. To combat this, and anticipating the US Navy's Plan Orange doctrine where the battle line would fight their way across the Pacific to relieve the Philippines, the IJN saw the need to whittle down the US Navy capital ships before a decisive battle could be fought. Thus, they focused on night battle doctrines, developing weapons suited for the role, which included torpedoes.

 

By the 1920s, the Japanese and British were experimenting on pure oxygen torpedoes to combat the telltale wake of torpedoes as well as extend their range by increasing the amount of oxygen that could be burned inside. The research stopped in 1924 after many fatalities due to premature explosions, but continued in 1927 after a naval inspector reported that the Rodney appeared to be equipped with oxygen driven torpedoes. They found the fault in their torpedoes: sharp turns in the tubing compressed and heated the oxygen (because Gay-Lussac's/Amonton's Law), causing it to react with the left over oil in the tubing. They eliminated the sharp turns and cleaned the tubing with a strong alkali solution, which solved the problem. The tendency of the oxygen and kerosene mixture to violently detonate when exposed to the combustion chamber was also remedied by initially powering the torpedo with compressed air from "Air Tank 1" before gradually switching to oxygen kept in "Air Tank 2" (no, it isn't air, air is 79% Nitrogen and 21% Oxygen. It's labeled that way to fool people). After years of further testing, including firing them off cliffs to test depth control and using hulks to see the effect, in 1933, the Type 93 Model 22 (Kyū san-shiki gyorai) or also known as the Sanso gyorai (lit. Oxygen torpedo) was born.

 

The Type 93 Model 22, nicknamed postwar as the Long Lance by Samuel Eliot Morison, was the most advanced torpedo of the time when it was introduced, and proved to be one right until the war ended, and even some years after. It had extremely long range with excellent speed, due to its powerful engine, capable of reaching 40,000m at 36 knots. In contrast, the standard US Navy destroyer torpedo of the war, the Mk 15, traveled 13,700km in 26 knots. Additionally, due to the constant debugging and testing of the Japanese pre war, the little kinks and troubles of the fuse was fixed, resulting in a very robust and reliable contact detonator, in contrast with the US Navy's... less than reliable detonators (though this did cost Japan Shinano due to overconfidence). It also carried a hefty 1080lb punch, enough to sink destroyers with one torpedo, and the heaviest cruisers with three. Finally, the Type 93 was also very, very stealthy, as the combustion products produced only carbon dioxide, which is quite soluble in water.

 

Not all was rainbows and unicorns for the Type 93, however. It also had several drawbacks that made it deadly to carry the Type 93 itself, not just being hit by it. Because of its oxygen fuel, it was very dangerous to have it on deck when ships were being shelled. A direct hit to the torpedo magazine of a ship, or even a torpedo to the torpedo magazine of a ship, aside from being great irony, destroyed several Type 93 carrying ships during the war due to the secondary explosion of the tanks. The torpedoes also required meticulous maintenance, requiring highly trained maintenance personnel to watch over them, something that Japan would have shortage of in the late war years. However, despite these disadvantages, the Type 93 Model 22 torpedoes proved to be devastating to ships they hit, especially if hit in the extremeties of ranges, often accounting "stray" Type 93 hits as mines or undetected submarines. In fact, one Japanese submarine, I-19, probably carrying the submarine issue oxygen torpedo, the Type 95, fired the single most destructive torpedo spread of the war, severly damaging the carrier USS Wasp (which had to be scuttled later), sinking the destroyer USS O'Brien, and damaging the battleship USS North Carolina. It wasn't until the US captured documents pertaining to the torpedoes to convince allied leaders that, yes, Japan was able to make torpedoes capable of striking from 40km away, and striking hard and reliably.

 

And now onto the ships! The Type 93 Model 22, and its submarine derivative, the Type 95, became the standard torpedo of the IJN when World War II broke out. It came in multiple packages, from double tube launchers to quad tube launchers, and even quintuple tube launchers on Shimakaze, who had THREE (but still not the most number) of them, and were mounted from heavy cruisers down to quick and speedy destroyers, allowing even the smallest ship in the IJN to heavily damage a heavy cruiser, as evidenced by Yuudachi (p-poi~) during Guadalcanal. During the development of the night battle doctrines and torpedo tactics, IJN decided to pull all stops and created surface ships capable of firing multiple torpedoes in one salvo: the Torpedo Cruisers, Kitakami and Ooi.

 

ship_kitakami1.jpgship_oi1.jpg

IJN Kitakami and IJN Ooi in their Kuma-class configuration. There seem to be no pictures existing of their CLT configuration.

 

 

Kitakami and Ooi (as seen moefied in my sig) both started out as simple Kuma-class light cruisers, both launched in 1920. By 1934, with the introduction of the Type 93 Model 22, they were slated to be remodeled into torpedo cruisers, carrying not 8, the most carried by the destroyers and cruisers at the time, not 10, but 40 tubes of Type 93 Model 22 Oxygen Torpedoes. Originally the plan was 44 tubes, but was knocked down to 40 each as 'only' ten sets of Type 92 quad 61cm launchers were available. That's two broadsides, five launchers each, of 20 Type 93 oxygen torpedoes coming at you. Is that OP, WoWS-wise? I have no idea, I'm a purple, not one of them greens.

 

Sadly, by the time they were introduced, torpedo cruisers were no longer as effective as before in the light of of the carrier based warfare that was happening. During Midway, Kitakami and Ooi sortie together for the first time, and are together for the better part of two years. They unfortunately never use their new launchers, or at least I can't find a report that says they did. During Aug-Sep of 1942, they are once again remodeled into fast transports, reducing their ten launchers to six, and are assigned to troop transport operations. They sortie together until January of 1944, where Kitakami is torpedoed enroute to Singapore and forced to dock, and Ooi continues on the transport mission. Six months later, during rough seas in July 19, 1944, at 1046 Ooi is torpedoed by USS Flasher, and is hit by two torpedoes. One is a dud, while the other floods her aft engine room. Ooi sinks by 1725 of the day.

 

Kitakami continued to serve as a transport ship after the sinking of Ooi. A month later, in 14th of August 1944, she undergoes a refit into a kaiten (manned torpedoes derived from the Type 93) carrier. All of her armaments are removed and replaced by AA guns and a crane taken from the remodeled seaplane tender Chitose for the purpose of handling the kaitens. Thankfully, Kitakami never uses any of her kaitens, and survives until the end of the war, being assigned to repatriation services. She is removed from the Navy List in November 30, 1945 and scrapped in 1946.

 

While the torpedo cruisers were quite interesting ships, and probably could have been quite powerful had they been given the chance to show off their ability, they were inevitably outclassed and outperformed by the new dawn of carrier based warfare. Nonetheless, the Type 93 Model 22 torpedo continued to be used as the main IJN torpedo throughout the war.

 

Kitakami and Ooi later lived on as JDS Isuzu-class destroyer escorts, decomissioned in 1993.


Thanks for reading this quite long piece from me. Please comment if there are inaccuracies or anything I might add to it.:honoring:

 

If it seems a bit too biased towards IJN torps, especially that comparison part... well... it is a piece about IJN torps. Haha. :hiding:

 

Sources:

 

Edited by skittleslol

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Alpha Tester
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First and foremost, a disclaimer: I'm no naval historian. Just a student with access to the Googlespace. Heck, my college degree don't even touch the topic of torpedoes (because that would be weird), but I just have a strange love for the wonderful invention that is torpedoes, brought by the resurgence of my love for ships (thanks to KanColle, WoWS, and NF).

 

So without further ado, TORPEDOES!

 

ds4w.jpg

Type 93 Model 22 torpedo being fired

 

First off, a small history behind torpedoes. The first torpedoes were more akin to floating naval mines when first introduced. Another early type of torpedo was the spar torpedo, which little more than explody bits on a stick. The method of attack: stick the explody bit on the bottom of a ship using a (man powered) submarine or smaller boat, light the fuse, and hope you don't get blown up along with victim ship. As expected, this didn't go as well as intended, as evidenced by the H. L. Hunley's attack.

 

The modern torpedo came into being by the invention of the Whitehead torpedo by Robert Whitehead. This had the form of a torpedo we all know and love (or love to hate) now, and was when the term torpedo came to describe self-propelled projectiles that traveled underwater or on water. By World War 1, torpedoes were already being used widely by both sides, most prevalently by the German U-Boats, sinking shipping in the Channel and disrupting supply lines. So I guess we could say the Whitehead torpedo was the granddaddy of modern torpedoes. Whether it had a white head or not, I am not sure.

 

Even before World War 1, however, the Japanese were already catching on to this newfangled thing that was the torpedo. During the Battle of Tsushima in 1905, Japanese used torpedo firing ships to sink the flagship of the Russian fleet. During the interwar years between World War I and World War II, the Imperial Japanese Navy was at a disadvantage with the 5:5:3 capital ship ratio of the Washington Naval Treaty, especially in a naval battle with the United States in the Pacific. To combat this, and anticipating the US Navy's Plan Orange doctrine where the battle line would fight their way across the Pacific to relieve the Philippines, the IJN saw the need to whittle down the US Navy capital ships before a decisive battle could be fought. Thus, they focused on night battle doctrines, developing weapons suited for the role, which included torpedoes.

 

By the 1920s, the Japanese and British were experimenting on pure oxygen torpedoes to combat the telltale wake of torpedoes as well as extend their range by increasing the amount of oxygen that could be burned inside. The research stopped in 1924 after many fatalities due to premature explosions, but continued in 1927 after a naval inspector reported that the Rodney appeared to be equipped with oxygen driven torpedoes. They found the fault in their torpedoes: sharp turns in the tubing compressed and heated the oxygen (because Gay-Lussac's/Amonton's Law), causing it to react with the left over oil in the tubing. They eliminated the sharp turns and cleaned the tubing with a strong alkali solution, which solved the problem. The tendency of the oxygen and kerosene mixture to violently detonate when exposed to the combustion chamber was also remedied by initially powering the torpedo with compressed air from "Air Tank 1" before gradually switching to oxygen kept in "Air Tank 2". After years of further testing, including firing them off cliffs to test depth control and using hulks to see the effect, in 1933, the Type 93 Model 22 (Kyū san-shiki gyorai) or also known as the Sanso gyorai (lit. Oxygen torpedo) was born.

 

The Type 93 Model 22, nicknamed postwar as the Long Lance by Samuel Eliot Morison, was the most advanced torpedo of the time when it was introduced, and proved to be one right until the war ended, and even some years after. It had extremely long range with excellent speed, due to its powerful engine, capable of reaching 40,000m at 36 knots. In contrast, the standard US Navy destroyer torpedo of the war, the Mk 15, traveled 13,700km in 26 knots. Additionally, due to the constant debugging and testing of the Japanese pre war, the little kinks and troubles of the fuse was fixed, resulting in a very robust and reliable contact detonator, in contrast with the US Navy's... less than reliable detonators (though this did cost Japan Shinano due to overconfidence). It also carried a hefty 1080lb punch, enough to sink destroyers with one torpedo, and the heaviest cruisers with three. Finally, the Type 93 was also very, very stealthy, as the combustion products produced only carbon dioxide, which is quite soluble in water.

 

Not all was rainbows and unicorns for the Type 93, however. It also had several drawbacks that made it deadly to carry the Type 93 itself, not just being hit by it. Because of its oxygen fuel, it was very dangerous to have it on deck when ships were being shelled. A direct hit to the torpedo magazine of a ship, or even a torpedo to the torpedo magazine of a ship, aside from being great irony, destroyed several Type 93 carrying ships during the war due to the secondary explosion of the tanks. The torpedoes also required meticulous maintenance, requiring highly trained maintenance personnel to watch over them, something that Japan would have shortage of in the late war years. However, despite these disadvantages, the Type 93 Model 22 torpedoes proved to be devastating to ships they hit, especially if hit in the extremeties of ranges, often accounting "stray" Type 93 hits as mines or undetected submarines. In fact, one Japanese submarine, I-19, probably carrying the submarine issue oxygen torpedo, the Type 95, fired the single most destructive torpedo spread of the war, severly damaging the carrier USS Wasp (which had to be scuttled later), sinking the destroyer USS O'Brien, and damaging the battleship USS North Carolina. It wasn't until the US captured documents pertaining to the torpedoes to convice allied leaders that, yes, Japan was able to make torpedoes capable of striking from 40km away, and striking hard and reliably.

 

And now onto the ships! The Type 93 Model 22, and its submarine derivative, the Type 95, became the standard torpedo of the IJN when World War II broke out. It came in multiple packages, from double tube launchers to quad tube launchers, and were mounted from heavy cruisers down to quick and speedy destroyers, allowing even the smallest ship in the IJN to heavily damage a heavy cruiser, as evidenced by Yuudachi (p-poi~) during Guadalcanal. During the development of the night battle doctrines and torpedo tactics, IJN decided to pull all stops and created surface ships capable of firing multiple torpedoes in one salvo: the Torpedo Cruisers, Kitakami and Ooi.

 

ship_kitakami1.jpgship_oi1.jpg

IJN Kitakami and IJN Ooi in their Kuma-class configuration. There seem to be no pictures existing of their CLT configuration.

 

 

Kitakami and Ooi (as seen moefied in my sig) both started out as simple Kuma-class light cruisers, both launched in 1920. By 1934, with the introduction of the Type 93 Model 22, they were slated to be remodeled into torpedo cruisers, carrying not 8, the most carried by the destroyers and cruisers at the time, not 10, but 40 tubes of Type 93 Model 22 Oxygen Torpedoes. Originally the plan was 44 tubes, but was knocked down to 40 each as 'only' ten sets of Type 92 quad 61cm launchers were available. That's two broadsides, five launchers each, of 20 Type 93 oxygen torpedoes coming at you. Is that OP, WoWS-wise? I have no idea, I'm a purple, not one of them greens.

 

Sadly, by the time they were introduced, torpedo cruisers were no longer as effective as before in the light of of the carrier based warfare that was happening. During Midway, Kitakami and Ooi sortie together for the first time, and are together for the better part of two years. They unfortunately never use their new launchers, or at least I can't find a report that says they did. During Aug-Sep of 1942, they are once again remodeled into fast transports, reducing their ten launchers to six, and are assigned to troop transport operations. They sortie together until January of 1944, where Kitakami is torpedoed enroute to Singapore and forced to dock, and Ooi continues on the transport mission. Six months later, during rough seas in July 19, 1944, at 1046 Ooi is torpedoed by USS Flasher, and is hit by two torpedoes. One is a dud, while the other floods her aft engine room. Ooi sinks by 1725 of the day.

 

Kitakami continued to serve as a transport ship after the sinking of Ooi. A month later, in 14th of August 1944, she undergoes a refit into a kaiten (manned torpedoes derived from the type 93) carrier. All of her armaments are removed and replaced by AA guns and a crane taken from the remodeled seaplane tender Chitose for the purpose of handling the kaitens. Thankfully, Kitakami never uses any of her kaitens, and survives until the end of the war, being assigned to repatriation services. She is removed from the Navy List in November 30, 1945 and scrapped in 1946.

 

While the torpedo cruisers were quite interesting ships, and probably could have been quite powerful had they been given the chance to show off their ability, they were inevitably outclassed and outperformed by the new dawn of carrier based warfare. Nonetheless, the Type 93 Model 22 torpedo continued to be used as the main IJN torpedo throughout the war.

 

Kitakami and Ooi later lived on as JDS Isuzu-class destroyer escorts, decomissioned in 1993.


Thanks for reading this quite long piece from me. Please comment if there are inaccuracies or anything I might add to it.:honoring:

 

If it seems a bit too biased towards IJN torps, especially that comparison part... well... it is a piece about IJN torps. Haha. :hiding:

 

Sources:

 

 

Thanks to NF only we know Kitakami and Ooi is one of most deadly Non-BB ship with their Long Range-Powerful-Stealthy Torpedoes Wall 

 

 

 

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Super Tester
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If they come out as premium ships, I may consider buying

 

Sir, do you believe in the Torpedo Wall™?

 

Well, I believe the reason why the CLTs (and this goes also for CVs and CVLs) weren't able to be used to any extent lies in IJN doctrine (Kantai Kaisen).

For the guys who started the war with a massive seaborne air attack, they believed in the battleship too much.

 

Edited by ExESGO

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Beta Tester
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Thanks to NF only we know Kitakami and Ooi is one of most deadly Non-BB ship with their Long Range-Powerful-Stealthy Torpedoes Wall 

 

 

 

 

Well, in NF2 Kitakami can give nightmare to BBs because of 4x10 long lance torpedos

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Beta Tester
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You forgot the Quintuple launchers of Zakamashi  Shimakaze ! :P

 

Zekamashi Shimakaze only have 15 but it is fast and really agile

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Beta Tester
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You forgot the Quintuple launchers of Zakamashi  Shimakaze ! :P

 

Ou! Right, I forgot about that, it was actually written in one of the sources, must've missed it... thanks for reminding!

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Alpha Tester
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You forgot the Quintuple launchers of Zakamashi  Shimakaze ! :P

 

 

Zekamashi Shimakaze only have 15 but it is fast and really agile

 

(Who is Zekamashi?):unsure:

Yeah Shimakaze sure is a nightmare:playing:

but isn't it making USN Tier 10 DD less worthy?:ohmy:

Edited by Harpoon01

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Beta Tester
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(Who is Zekamashi?):unsure:

Yeah Shimakaze sure is a nightmare:playing:

but isn't it making USN Tier 10 DD less worthy?:ohmy:

 

I don't really know anything about USN DD, but every nation have its own certain advantages

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Super Tester
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Hi, I'm wblueskies, Japanese alpha tester of WoWs.

This topic is really good... for studying English because I've been still a university student.

I hope you write other wonderful topic of naval history someday... thank you!

 

See you again on the sea in next weekend test... XD

Edited by wblueskies

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Alpha Tester
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Get Klein Field :P

 

And after Many days of complaint of the Invincible "Klein Field"..... They create Gravity Cannon

wait wait wait.......this become  more off topic

Edited by Harpoon01

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Beta Tester
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I hope that Kitakami/Ooi is researchable if WG plans to have a separate line for CL's....

(but probably for now, these two are expected to be prem ships....I think)

 

Get Klein Field :P

 

O_O

 

 

:honoring:

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Beta Tester
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I hope that Kitakami/Ooi is researchable if WG plans to have a separate line for CL's....

(but probably for now, these two are expected to be prem ships....I think)

 

 

money sound.mp3

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